Explorer 1, the satellite that put the US in a space race | Digital Trends Spanish


It was the hectic fifties. After World War II, the United States and the then Soviet Union faced each other in a frantic race to demonstrate scientific and warlike power.

The exploration of space was one of the main battle fronts of the so-called Cold War.

The USSR had struck the first blow in October 1957, when it launched its first satellite, Sputnik 1. A month later, Sputnik 2 arrived.

In addition to being a political, military, and scientific victory, the launching of these satellites was primarily a symbolic blow to the United States.

With morale on the ground

Restoring internal confidence and prestige abroad became an obligation for the administration of then President Dwight Eisenhower.

On December 6, 1957, the United States was prepared to strike back with the Vanguard project.

Excited, the US authorities called a massive press conference for the media to witness the launch.

However, far from restoring confidence, it turned into a real disaster: the Vanguard rocket exploded only seconds after launch.

Officially in the space race

From left to right, Williams Pickering, James van Allen and Wernher von Braun hold a model of the Explorer 1. POT

The Eisenhower administration then had to turn to the Jupiter-C rocket, developed by Wernher von Braun and his team at the Army’s Ballistic Missile Agency (ABMA).

The ABMA team had worked with the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in California, led by William Pickering, to build a satellite that would carry an experiment by physicist James Van Allen to measure Earth’s “cosmic rays.”

Under the most absolute stealth and powered by the Juno I rocket – a variant of the Jupiter-C – the Alpha 1958 satellite, later known as Explorer 1, was successfully launched from Cape Canaveral on January 31, 1958.

Only when it was confirmed that the launch was successful and that the satellite was in orbit did Pickering, Von Braun and Van Allen appear publicly holding up a model of Explorer 1, in which it has been transformed into an iconic photograph.

The successful launch of Explorer 1, as well as other satellites that followed, led the United States Congress to pass the National Aeronautics and Space Act.

Thanks to this law, on October 1 of that year the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, NASA, was born, with which the United States officially entered the space race.

Editor’s Recommendations




var stage = 0; var options = {"dt:content-modules":{"wizard_icon_url":"https://es.digitaltrends.com/wp-content/plugins/dt-content-modules/assets/images//wizard.png"},"dt:theme":{"assets":{"js_uri":"https://es.digitaltrends.com/wp-content/themes/digitaltrends-es-2018/assets/scripts","js_path":"/usr/src/app/wp-content/themes/digitaltrends-es-2018/assets/scripts","parent_js_uri":"https://es.digitaltrends.com/wp-content/themes/dt-stardust/assets/scripts","parent_js_path":"/usr/src/app/wp-content/themes/dt-stardust/assets/scripts","css_uri":"https://es.digitaltrends.com/wp-content/themes/digitaltrends-es-2018/assets/styles","css_path":"/usr/src/app/wp-content/themes/digitaltrends-es-2018/assets/styles","parent_css_uri":"https://es.digitaltrends.com/wp-content/themes/dt-stardust/assets/styles","image_uri":"https://es.digitaltrends.com/wp-content/themes/digitaltrends-es-2018/assets/images","parent_image_uri":"https://es.digitaltrends.com/wp-content/themes/dt-stardust/assets/images","font_uri":"https://es.digitaltrends.com/wp-content/themes/digitaltrends-es-2018/assets/fonts","parent_font_uri":"https://es.digitaltrends.com/wp-content/themes/digitaltrends-es-2018/assets/fonts","plugin_dir":"/usr/src/app/wp-content/plugins","mu_plugin_dir":"/usr/src/app/wp-content/mu-plugins","vip_client_mu_plugin_dir":"/usr/src/app/wp-content/client-mu-plugins","global_assets_path":"/usr/src/app/wp-content/themes/globalAssets/"},"tos_url":null,"pp_url":null},"dt:snowplow":{"session_context_schema":"iglu:com.digitaltrends/session/jsonschema/1-0-2","ad_settings_context_schema":"iglu:com.digitaltrends/ads/jsonschema/1-0-0","content_cookie":"dtContent","content_context_schema":"iglu:com.digitaltrends/content/jsonschema/1-0-1"},"facebook":{"facebook:app:id":"803626527068006","facebook:channel_url":"https://es.digitaltrends.com/fb-channel.php","facebook:page:id":"digitaltrendsenespanol","jssdk-src":"//connect.facebook.net/es_LA/all.js"},"twitter":{"handle":"DigitalTrendsEs"},"debug":{"dt_suppress_from_topics_filter_applied":false,"dt_suppress_from_topics_new_version":true,"pp_context":"discovery","pp_native_topic":false,"pp_page":1,"pp_batch":"50"},"dt:cc":{"cc_tracking":{"amazon":{"params":{"tag":"dt-es-20"},"click_id":"ascsubtag","patterns":["http[s]?://(www\.)?amazon\.com(\.mx)?/.*","http[s]?://(www\.)?amazon\.es/.*","http[s]?://amzn\.to/.*","http[s]?://amzn\.com/.*","http[s]?://a\.co/.*"]},"apple":{"params":[],"patterns":["http[s]?://apple\.sjv\.io/.*"]},"avantlink":{"params":[],"click_id":"ctc","patterns":["http[s]?://(www\.)?avantlink\.com/.*"]},"awin":{"params":[],"click_id":"clickref","patterns":["http[s]?://www\.awin1\.com/.*"]},"cj-affiliate":{"params":[],"click_id":"sid","patterns":["http[s]?://www\.anrdoezrs\.net","http[s]?://anrdoezrs\.net","http[s]?://commission\-junction\.com","http[s]?://dpbolvw\.net","http[s]?://apmebf\.com","http[s]?://jdoqocy\.com","http[s]?://kqzyfj\.com","http[s]?://qksrv\.net","http[s]?://tkqlhce\.com","http[s]?://qksz\.net","http[s]?://emjcd\.com","http[s]?://afcyhf\.com","http[s]?://awltovhc\.com","http[s]?://ftjcfx\.com","http[s]?://lduhtrp\.net","http[s]?://tqlkg\.com","http[s]?://awxibrm\.co","http[s]?://cualbr\.com","http[s]?://rnsfpw\.net","http[s]?://vofzpwh\.com","http[s]?://yceml\.net"],"path_regex_replace":{"pattern":"(http[s]?)(.*)(http[s]?)(.*)([?|&]sid=)(.*)","replacement":"$1$2sid/$6/$3$4","required_url_part":"/dlg/"}},"cloudcity_adapter":{"params":[],"click_id":"subid1","disable_tracking":true,"patterns":["http[s]?://ccp\.digitaltrends\.com/go/ccp/?.*","http[s]?://cc-stage\.isvc\.tech/go/ccp/?.*"]},"connexity_sylikes":{"params":[],"click_id":"afCampaignId","patterns":["http[s]?://link\.sylikes\.com/.*"]},"connexity_bizrate":{"params":[],"click_id":"af_campaign_id","patterns":["http[s]?://rd\.bizrate\.com/.*"]},"ebay":{"params":[],"patterns":["http[s]?://rover\.ebay\.com/.*"]},"flex-offers":{"params":[],"patterns":["http[s]?://track\.flexlinkspro\.com/.*"]},"impact-radius":{"params":[],"click_id":"subid1","patterns":["http[s]?://99designs\.qvig\.net","http[s]?://acehardware\.dttq\.net","http[s]?://adidas\.njih\.net","http[s]?://adorama\.rfvk\.net","http[s]?://airbnb\.vaz6fn\.net","http[s]?://allenedmonds\.ojrq\.net","http[s]?://apple\.sjv\.io","http[s]?://appsumo\.8odi\.net","http[s]?://atom\-tickets\.pxf\.io","http[s]?://avocadomattress\.n5ka\.net","http[s]?://backcountry\.tnu8\.net","http[s]?://belkin\.evyy\.net","http[s]?://bestbuy\.7tiv\.net","http[s]?://bigcommerce\.zfrcsk\.net","http[s]?://birch\.fziv\.net","http[s]?://blue\-apron\.evyy\.net","http[s]?://blueapron\.i3zp\.net","http[s]?://bombfell\.l9yg\.net","http[s]?://burstoralcare\.bts6\.net","http[s]?://case\-mate\.kxyi\.net","http[s]?://casemate\.kxyi\.net","http[s]?://casetify\.evyy\.net","http[s]?://casetify\.hyyc7q\.net","http[s]?://casper\.5ad6\.net","http[s]?://cbs\-allaccess\.qflm\.net","http[s]?://cbsallaccess\.qflm\.net","http[s]?://cocoavia\.sjv\.io","http[s]?://codespark\.j4ib\.net","http[s]?://coinbase\-consumer\.sjv\.io","http[s]?://constant\-contact\.evyy\.net","http[s]?://constant\-contact\.ibfwsl\.net","http[s]?://cratejoy\.jgpt48\.net","http[s]?://creditkarma\.myi4\.net","http[s]?://cyberghost\.sjv\.io","http[s]?://designer\-living\.evyy\.net","http[s]?://dicks\-sporting\-goods\.ryvx\.net","http[s]?://disneyplus\.bn5x\.net","http[s]?://door\-dash\.5vju\.net","http[s]?://dreamcloudsleep\.xuok\.net","http[s]?://drip\.pxf\.io","http[s]?://eddie\-bauer\-us\.ygwk\.net","http[s]?://eddiebauerus\.ygwk\.net","http[s]?://eight\-sleep\.ioym\.net","http[s]?://espn\.zlbu\.net","http[s]?://fanatics\.ncw6\.net","http[s]?://felixgray\.ntaf\.net","http[s]?://flaviar\.5d3x\.net","http[s]?://freshdirect\.bpu9\.net","http[s]?://getcairn\.w9v5\.net","http[s]?://getquip\.d67ag4\.net","http[s]?://gettyimages\.68w6\.net","http[s]?://glassesusa\.7eer\.net","http[s]?://go\.corsair\.com","http[s]?://go\.web\.plus\.espn\.com","http[s]?://gobble\.sjv\.io","http[s]?://goto\.target\.com","http[s]?://goto\.walmart\.com","http[s]?://gotomeeting\.zvbf\.net","http[s]?://grasshopper\.o9o4\.net","http[s]?://grenco\-science\.evyy\.net","http[s]?://harrys\.3tvl\.net","http[s]?://helix\-sleep\.tkjf\.net","http[s]?://homedepot\.sjv\.io","http[s]?://hotspotshield\.bvrd\.net","http[s]?://house\.r2oa\.net","http[s]?://intego\.7eer\.net","http[s]?://istockphoto\.6q33\.net","http[s]?://kohls\.sjv\.io","http[s]?://leesa\-sleep\.lvuv\.net","http[s]?://leesasleep\.lvuv\.net","http[s]?://lending\-club\-smb\.sjv\.io","http[s]?://lenovo\.vzew\.net","http[s]?://letsgetchecked\.7no9\.net","http[s]?://levelsleep\.xuvt\.net","http[s]?://linkto\.hrblock\.com","http[s]?://lootcrate\.znvt\.net","http[s]?://lorex\-flir\.obak77\.net","http[s]?://lorex\-flir\.sjv\.io","http[s]?://lumin\.7w7o67\.net","http[s]?://macpaw\.audw\.net","http[s]?://mancrates\.ln72\.net","http[s]?://manscaped\.sjv\.io","http[s]?://massdrop\.7eer\.net","http[s]?://mcafee\-consumer\-affiliate\.mpye\.net","http[s]?://mgemi\.pxf\.io","http[s]?://microsoft\.msafflnk\.net","http[s]?://mint\-mobile\.58dp\.net","http[s]?://mvmt\.7eer\.net","http[s]?://nakedwines\.sjv\.io","http[s]?://nautilus\.atkw\.net","http[s]?://nectar\.xovt\.net","http[s]?://nixon\.wkq9\.net","http[s]?://noom\.8utb\.net","http[s]?://nordvpn\.sjv\.io","http[s]?://onemore\.pxf\.io","http[s]?://ooma\.vqi8\.net","http[s]?://packsproject\.33qw\.net","http[s]?://partners\.alamo\.com","http[s]?://partners\.enterprise\.com","http[s]?://partners\.hotwire\.com","http[s]?://photoscom\.pxf\.io","http[s]?://purple\.e9jo\.net","http[s]?://qustodio\.sjv\.io","http[s]?://razer\.a9yw\.net","http[s]?://scentbird\.7eer\.net","http[s]?://scotchporter\.5l5h\.net","http[s]?://sentrypc\.7eer\.net","http[s]?://setapp\.sjv\.io","http[s]?://shipt\.58mq\.net","http[s]?://shutterstock\.7eer\.net","http[s]?://smarthome\.4hyab9\.net","http[s]?://sportsline\.evyy\.net","http[s]?://spot\-and\-tango\.i5md\.net","http[s]?://squarespace\.syuh\.net","http[s]?://summitsoft\.evyy\.net","http[s]?://sunsoil\.mzte\.net","http[s]?://thehomedepotca\.2t23\.net","http[s]?://thumbtack\.57ib\.net","http[s]?://treehouse\.7eer\.net","http[s]?://tuftandneedle\.attfm2\.net","http[s]?://ultimate\-ears\.dubn\.net","http[s]?://untuckit\.9znn\.net","http[s]?://wismo\.sjv\.io","http[s]?://www\.fubo\.tv","http[s]?://xfinity\.ulvh\.net","http[s]?://yaasa\.cw3o\.net","http[s]?://ziprecruiter\.fdcm73\.net"]},"pepperjam":{"params":[],"patterns":["http[s]?://(www\.)?pntrs\.com/.*","http[s]?://(www\.)?pntrac\.com/.*","http[s]?://(www\.)?pntra\.com/.*","http[s]?://(www\.)?gopjn\.com/.*","http[s]?://(www\.)?pjatr\.com/.*","http[s]?://(www\.)?pjtra\.com/.*"]},"rakuten":{"params":[],"click_id":"u1","patterns":["http[s]?://click\.linksynergy\.com/.*","http[s]?://linksynergy\.[^\.]+\.com/.*"]},"shareasale":{"params":[],"click_id":"afftrack","patterns":["http[s]?://(www\.)?shareasale\.com/.*"]},"skimlinks":{"params":{"xs":1},"click_id":"xcust","patterns":["http[s]?://(www\.)?fav\.co/.*","http[s]?://go\.skimresources\.com"]}},"cc_targeting":{"publisher_id":"dt","sites":"dtes","articles":783995,"articleCategories":["espacio"],"articleType":"feature","enable_permutive":0},"cc_opts":{"apiKey":null,"environment":"production"},"cc_response_timeout":5000,"merchant_order":[],"default_network_order":["amazon"],"post_products":[],"best_of_product_layout":false},"dt:dot_digital":{"options":{"wrapper_class":"dtdd-signup-form-wrapper","script_attributes":[],"injection_allowed":false}},"dtimage":{"snap_widths":[80,120,145,170,222,248,300,345,375,382,416,610,768,920,1200,1230],"base_url":"https://img.digitaltrends.com/image/digitaltrends_es/"},"dt:internal-links":{"enabled":false,"suppressed":false,"eligible":true,"paragraph_offset":2,"minimum_link_count":10,"minimum_post_age":7,"internal_link_count":4,"post_age":1,"category_eligibility_modes":"exclude","eligible_categories":[],"article_type_eligibility_mode":"exclude","eligible_article_types":[]},"dtvideos":{"kill_ads":false,"jwplayer_player_id":"Nh80yRhJ","jwplayer_discovery_id":"FNczomsZ","jwplayer_ad_schedule_id":"a748gnw8","ias_an_id":"927851","ads_tag":"https://pubads.g.doubleclick.net/gampad/ads?sz=970x556&iu=/5611/dtmn.video/es_dt_ros&ciu_szs&impl=s&gdfp_req=1&env=vp&output=xml_vast3&unviewed_position_start=1&url=__page-url__&description_url=__domain__&correlator=__random-number__&cmsid=2860&vid=__item-mediaid__","ads_spotx_wrapper":"https://search.spotxchange.com/vast/2.0/207447?VPAID=JS&content_page_url=__page-url__&ad_server[type]=DFP&ad_server[tag]=","prioritize_engagement":true,"default_video_provider":"jwplayer","ad_targeting_params":{"tags":["explorer-1","james-van-allen","satelites"],"cat":["espacio"],"supports":["skin"],"aid":783995},"brightcove_account_id":"5425749915001","brightcove_player_id":"1K3Vgqvjy","discovery_id":"5719629958001"},"dt:ads":{"inject-ads":true},"habu":{"id":"a138e4b5-5179-4df7-8677-4d888d432aff"},"qnqb92BhrzmkpqGx":{"post_sharing_data":{"object_id":783995,"taxonomy":"","url":"https://es.digitaltrends.com/espacio/satelite-explorer-1/","summary":"El satu00e9lite Explorer 1 abriu00f3 las puertas para el nacimiento de la NASA","title":"Explorer 1, el satu00e9lite que puso a EEUU en la carrera espacial","image":"https://icdn2.digitaltrends.com/image/digitaltrends_es/explorer-1.jpg","twitter_text":"Explorer 1, el satu00e9lite que puso a EEUU en la carrera espacial","twitter_hash_tags":""}},"dt:utm":{"style_settings":{"medium":"cpc","size":false}},"global":{"ajaxurl":"https://es.digitaltrends.com/wp-content/themes/dt-stardust/ajax-actions.php","home":"https://es.digitaltrends.com"},"doubleclick":{"prog_utm_contents":["progua"],"id":"/5611/dt.espanol","demo_id":"/5611/dt.dgt.test","prog_id":"/5611/prog.dtes","video_id":"/5611/dtmn.video/es_dt_ros"},"dt:gl":{"discovery_placements_enabled":"true","sub_nav:all_list_ids":[],"sub_nav:list_data":[]}}; var allOptions = {};

if (stage > 0 && window.DTOptions) { allOptions = window.DTOptions.getAll();

Object.keys(options).forEach(function(groupK) { if (options[groupK] && typeof options[groupK] === 'object') { Object.keys(options[groupK]).forEach(function(k) { if (!allOptions[groupK] || typeof allOptions[groupK] !== 'object') { allOptions[groupK] = {}; }

allOptions[groupK][k] = options[groupK][k]; }); } }); } else { allOptions = options; }

var getAll = function () { return allOptions; };

var get = function (key, group, def) { key = key || ''; group = group || 'qnqb92BhrzmkpqGx'; def = (typeof def !== 'undefined') ? def : null;

if (typeof allOptions[group] !== 'undefined') { if (key && typeof allOptions[group][key] !== 'undefined') { return allOptions[group][key]; } }

return def; };

var set = function (key, group, data) { key = key || ''; group = group || 'qnqb92BhrzmkpqGx'; data = data || null;

if (key) { if (typeof allOptions[group] === 'undefined') { allOptions[group] = {}; }

allOptions[group][key] = data; } };

var del = function (key, group) { key = key || ''; group = group || 'qnqb92BhrzmkpqGx';

if (typeof allOptions[group] !== 'undefined') { if (key && typeof allOptions[group][key] !== 'undefined') { allOptions[group][key] = null; } } };

window.DTOptions = { get: get, getAll: getAll, set: set, del: del, }; }());